cattle embryo transfer, bull semen
EPD (EXPECTED PROGENY DIFFERENCE): This is the expected difference in performance of a bull’s progeny when compared to the average progeny performances of all bulls evaluated for a given time period. EPD’s are based on the actual progeny performance and on performance information of the individual and his relatives. (sire, dam, etc.)
ACC (ACCURACY): An expression of reliability of the EPD. Accuracy ranges from 0.0 to 0.59 are considered low, 0.60 to 0.79 are medium, and0.80 to 1.00 are highly reliable.
P,PE (PEDIGREE ESTIMATE): Indicates that the EPD is only an estimate based upon the performance information of an animals sire and dam.
PE+: The same as PE, however the individual’s own performance record for that trait is included in the estimate.
BW EPD (BIRTH WEIGHT): The birth weight of a bull’s progeny expressed in pounds.
WW EPD (WEANING WEIGHT): The adjusted weaning weights of a bull’s progeny and is expressed in pounds. This is the best estimate of pre-weaning growth. (7 months)
YW EPD (YEARLING WEIGHT): The adjusted yearling weights of a bull’s progeny and is expressed in pounds. This is the best estimate of growth through 1 year of age.
MILK EPD: The amount of pre-weaning gain by calves that can be attributed to the milking ability of a bull’s daughters and is expressed in pounds of calf.
MWW EPD (MATERNAL WEANING WEIGHT): The weaning weight of a bull’s daughter’s calves and is expressed in pounds. This evaluation represents both the milking ability of a bull’s daughters and the growth potential of their calves.
GL (GESTATION LENGTH): (Gelbvieh breed only) – The number of days from breeding to calving for a bull’s progeny and is expressed in number of days above or below the average.
CED (CALVING EASE DIRECT): For the Gelbvieh breed, this is a measure of the ease with which a bull’s calves are born from first calf heifers and is expressed as a ratio with those above 100 being more easily born. For the Simmental breed, this EPD is available for heifers (H) and cows (C) and is expressed in the percent of unassisted births with positive EPD’s indicating greater calving ease.
DCE OR CE MATERNAL (DAUGHTER CALVING EASE/CALVING EASE MATERNAL): The ease with which a bull’s daughters calve as first calf heifers and is expressed as a ratio with those above 100 indicating greater calving ease.
HOMOZYGOUS POLLED: These bulls have been proven to produce all polled calves. They have been mated to horned and heterozygous polled cows and have produced all polled calves. If a bull is bred to 10 horned cows and produces all polled calves, he is said to have a 99.9% probability of being homozygous polled.
HOMOZYGOUS BLACK: These are bulls that have proven to produce all black bodied or black factored bodied progeny. The spotting gene, which is a separate gene, is responsible for the white color in the face, feet, tails, underline, etc. A homozygous black bull, therefore, may sire black or black factored progeny that have white on their face, feet, or underline but do have a black or black factored body color. Homozygous black bulls should produce black of black factored progeny when bred to black, black factored, red, or yellow females.